The pre-industrial climate 1

The composition of the atmosphere and the characteristics of the climate have changed in major ways from the early, pre-biotic stage described earlier.

These changes have been brought about by five natural ecosystems.

  • The atmosphere
  • The oceans
  • The land mass
  • The cryosphere (ice regions)
  • The biosphere (living organisms)

Let’s first look at the atmosphere and its role in controlling the climate.