The land mass and its usage play an important role in affecting the global cycle of greenhouse gases. Depending on how it is used, land can either increase the emissions of greenhouse gases into the atmosphere or reduce them.
The United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change has stated that the appropriate use of land can significantly mitigate climate change. Indeed, the correct use of land is absolutely necessary to protect the supply of food.
The Paris Agreement also emphasised the importance of land use in limiting climate change including reforestation and reduced emissions from deforestation and forest degradation (REDD). The concept of REDD is that governments or companies in the South of the planet should be rewarded for keeping their forests.
The recent IPCC report (Global warming of 1.5C) states in Chapter 11 (Agriculture, Forestry and Other Land Use (AFOLU)) that this ecosystem is responsible for producing a little under a quarter of anthropogenic greenhouse gas emissions. These are produced mainly through deforestation and emissions from livestock, soil and agricultural nutrient management.
Next the cryosphere ecosystem.