Volume II of the Fourth National Climate Assessment (NCA4) – Impacts, Risks, and Adaptation in the United States

Volume II  of the Fourth National Climate Assessment (NCA4) - Impacts, Risks, and Adaptation in the United States 1
Volume II of The National Climate Assessment

Volume II  of the Fourth National Climate Assessment (NCA4)- Impacts, Risks, and Adaptation in the United States – was published today (23 November 2018)

The Global Change Research Act of 1990 mandates that the U.S. Global Change Research Program (USGCRP) deliver a report to Congress and the President no less than every four years.

This report:

  • integrates, evaluates, and interprets the findings of the Program
  • analyzes the effects of global change on the natural environment, agriculture, energy production and use, land and water resources, transportation, human health and welfare, human social systems, and biological diversity
  • analyzes current trends in global change, both human-induced and natural, and projects major trends for the subsequent 25 to 100 years.

Volume I – the Climate Science Special Report (CSSR) provided the foundational science used in Volume II.

Volume II Impacts, Risks, and Adaptation in the United States  – focuses on the human welfare, societal, and environmental elements of climate change and variability for 10 regions and 18 national topics, with particular attention paid to observed and projected risks, impacts, consideration of risk reduction, and implications under different mitigation pathways. It also provides examples of actions underway in communities across the United States to reduce the risks associated with climate change, increase resilience, and improve livelihoods.

This assessment was written to help inform decision-makers, utility and natural resource managers, public health officials, emergency planners, and other stakeholders by providing a thorough examination of the effects of climate change on the United States.

The report is available online and each section is downloadable in two formats – PDFs and PowerPoint presentations.

Volume II is divided into the following sections:

  • Report in Brief
  • Reporting Brief (Espanol)
  • Summary Findings
  • Chapter 1: Overview
  • Chapter 2: Our Changing Climate
  • Chapter 3: Water
  • Chapter 4: Energy Supply, Delivery and Demand
  • Chapter 5: Land Cover and Land-Use Change
  • Chapter 6: Forests
  • Chapter 7: Ecosystems, Ecosystem Services, and Biodiversity
  • Chapter 8: Coastal Effects
  • Chapter 9: Oceans and Marine Resources
  • Chapter 10: Agriculture and Rural Communities
  • Chapter 11: Built Environment, Urban Systems, and Cities
  • Chapter 12: Transportation
  • Chapter 13: Air Quality
  • Chapter 14: Human Health
  • Chapter 15: Tribes and Indigenous Peoples
  • Chapter 16: Climate Effects on U.S. International Interests
  • Chapter 17: Sector Interactions, Multiple Stressors, and Complex Systems
  • Chapter 18: Northeast
  • Chapter 19: Southeast
  • Chapter 20: U.S. Caribbean
  • Chapter 21: Midwest
  • Chapter 22: Northern Great Plains
  • Chapter 23: Southern Great Plains
  • Chapter 24: Northwest
  • Chapter 25: Southwest
  • Chapter 26: Alaska
  • Chapter 27: Hawaii and U.S.-Affiliated Pacific Islands
  • Chapter 28: Reducing Risks Through Adaptation Actions
  • Chapter 29: Reducing Risks Through Emissions Mitigation
  • Frequently Asked Questions

I will be going through the implications of this report in detail on this website over the next few weeks.